This will be wholesome of information accessible to any class of people, including technical and non-technical. The natural beauty of WordPress is it is open-source so that anyone can contribute to its framework of codes.
Table of Contents
Why do WordPress Developers need Coding Standards?
There may be a scenario where an excellent WordPress Development Company needs hundreds of hands to make it flawless in technical terms- bug-free.
There are even specific times that a WordPress developer might have to leave amidst the making of the codes.
Or, WordPress developers may have a specific skill within the particular sector. All these possibilities lead to the framing of coding standards. To crack the flow of work, developers often adapt to this method. Anyone can easily pick it up from the leftover. This helps in comprehending a touchstone for cumulative and review of the work of WordPress developers.
WordPress coding standards are not just the memorized syntaxes that you follow. They are the practices that are being followed to avoid complexities and increase the readability of the code.
Codes should be written to redirect the same thought as carved in mind. Also, readability should be given prime importance. It should be neatly woven into the thread that could make an entire heavy functional coding program appear simple.
“It is not the language that makes programs appear simple. It is the programmer that makes the language appear simple!” ― Robert C. Martin
HTML Coding Standards
Wrong codes are not a problem; they can be cleaned out. But the cleaning can cost heavy and takes time. Thus HTML code should be verified at the W3C validator to flush out the problems tested in automation.
This is used to show the start of a paragraph or block. In WordPress, Indentation can be done through ‘tabs’ or ‘two spaces.’ On an excellent code, using tabs proves beneficial.
This can also help when combining the flag of PHP and HTML. Tabs can shoot up the readability of the code very high.
This practice always lands a WordPress Developer in a logical structure. One thing to keep in mind while matching PHP and HTML is that closing PHP blocks should reach the level of indentation of that of opening blocks.
Any attribute must be mandatorily quoted, at least for XHTML.
Quotes are chained into single and double quotes considering string and non string values.
A single quote can be used for a non-string value, whereas a double quote for the string value.
Quoting can diminish security vulnerabilities.
All the tags must be closed efficiently. If forgotten, may fail to work the code. Do not always rely on self-closing tags; forward slash should be exactly before one space.
Attributes and Tags
All the attributes and tags must be written in a minor case. Using the upper case at preferred locations will increase readability for humans. In contrast, the machine will cipher the tags in lower case.
CSS Coding Standards
CSS coding is all about readability, meaningful codes, consistent and beautiful framework. The program should appear as a single entity besides coded by multiple users. Sometimes there seem inconsistencies in the stylesheet made by the frontend developer.
There are numerous ways to structure the stylesheet. However, inconsistencies may be present in the core WordPress CSS codes. This must be eliminated, and proper CSS coding standards may be followed. A clear understanding of the flow is the main idea behind all these standards.
Use tabs and not spaces to indent.
Two blank lines must be inserted in one section, and one blank line must be used between blocks.
The selector must be in its line ending in a comma or an open curly bracket.
Property value pair must be in its line with one tab indentation and ending in a hyphen.
The closing bracket must be pushed to the left with the same indentation as an open selector.
Efficiency will rise while using a broad selector. Though good codes, if not tested, will create issues.
The location-specific stylesheet will save time but will lead to cluttered stylesheets. Selectors should be such that it contributes to the Document Object Model’s overall style and development (DOM).
Some of the practices are:
Like PHP coding, the lower case should be used separated by a hyphen.
Avoid camelcase and underscore.
Use a human-readable selector that best describes the element style. Use a double-quoted attribute selector around values.
div. The container can be easily explained as .container and thus neglect over qualified selector.
Selecting and managing appropriate properties will bring down the size of codes. Too much styling will also create issues in the flexibility of the program.
The codes should be in fluidity and not into a fixed dimension. The following are the best practices a WordPress developer may follow:
- Followed by colon and space
- Font name and vendor-specific properties should be represented in the upper case
- Hex Code should be used for colors, and if necessary, rgba() can be used for opacity
- Avoid RGB format and upper case.
- Shorten the value, like #FFFFFF becomes #fff
- Use shorthand for non overriding styles like margin, padding values, font, size etc.
- When the repo is expansive, every bit and byte counts
Properties can be grouped by ordering into meaningful groups. It can be grouped so that transition can be created between sections like background before color.
Creating a baseline such as; Display, Positioning, Box model, Color, Typography, Other.
Sometimes, some properties may not be in the core. But it can be placed in any of the categories listed above. E.g., CSS3 animation.
Margin can be placed and ordered as (TRBL) top, right, bottom, left. Corner specifiers should be TL, TR, BR, BL.
Autoprefixer manages browser prefix making the section doubtful. Without Grunt, longest (-WebKit-) can become shortest (unprefixed).
Commenting is a good practice often accepted by coders.
This will help for a clear and faster understanding of the complex codes by other coders. Commenting should be liberal.
Commenting is allowed up to 80 characters in length as this will help in maintaining file size. Make the Use of minified files and script_DEBUG constant.
Provide a table of content for longer stylesheets, especially highly sectioned. Use index numbers (1.0, 1.1, 1.2 etc) to search and jump locations.
As such, as possible, use the format as PHPDoc. Section and subsection should have a new line before and after.
Don’t leave newlines empty between the inline comments.
There are multiple ways to input values for your properties.
- Use space before the value
- Ending in a semicolon
- Using double quotes
- 0 values should not have units.
Older .js files satisfy the coding standards. “Whitespace-only” patches are not acceptable now
Spacing is indeed a good practice. It improves the readability of codes. Indentation should be used with tabs. No whitespaces must be allowed.
Blocks will reside on multiple lines using braces. Having trailing whitespaces at the end is considered as an error in .jsHint
For short objects and arrays, they could be delivered as a single line, while represented as per object per line, if they are too long.
A good spacing example may be:
Indentation and Line Break
As discussed above, this will increase the readability of the code. In Fact for any closure, use a tab for indentation.
Blocks and Brackets
If, else, for, while, try must use braces and could be represented in multiple lines.
The opening brace should be in the same line as the condition or loop, while the closing bracket should be in the consecutive line.
If the block is too long, a line break should occur after an operator.
The break should be applied such that it retains logical meaning.
If too long, each operand of the logical operator in boolean must appear in its line.
Chained Method Calls
If the code is too long, there should be one call per line following the first call in a separate line.
If the tactic changes context, an extra indentation is required.
For code ES2015, const or let ought to be employed in place of var. If a value is assigned, allow should be used or constable if the value is not reassigned.
If a function does not start with var, it can lead to the outer scope. Assignments in var should be listed in individual lines.
All the documented globals should be on top.
Valid after password strength suggests that global is being outlined. If you omit true, this can convert it into read-only.
Backbone, jQuery, Underscore, and global WordPress are registered in the root, .jshintrc file.
Backbone and underscore are readily available .
jQuery ought to be accessed through $ bypassing the jQuery object in associate degree unknown function.
Add to or modify file should safely access to global for overwriting on antecedently set.
While using the ‘for’ loop, store loops’ maximum value as a variable instead of re-computing the maximum every time.
PHP Coding Standards
Formatting SQL Statement
Functions that update database should expect their parameters to lack SQL slash escaping by using $wpdb—-prepare()
String placeholders uses %s
%d is used for integer placeholders.
The only lower case must be used. Classname should be capitalized along with Acronym separated by an underscore.
Constant should be represented as upper case and underscore for space. Files have to be named descriptively separated by hyphens for space.
Files containing template tags must include -template appended to the end of the name so that they are apparent.
Besides creating clever code, it should be highly readable. Unless necessary, the loose comparison mustn’t be used as their behavior may be dishonest.
Assignments might not be placed in conditional.
It’s okay to own multiple empty cases that fall flat on a typical block in switch statements.
If a case contains a block, then it falls through following partnership.
No Shorthand PHP Tags
Always use full PHP tags
Remove Trailing Spaces
If you’re employing a tag, check that you’re removing the whitespaces at the tip.
Trailing edge whitespaces prevails at the tip of every line of code. Removing it’ll improve secret writing observation.
Multiline Functional Calls
Multifunction must be in a new line every time. Single or inline comments can take their own line.
Dynamic hooks are bestly named using interpolation instead of concatenation. Variables used in hook tags should be written in curly brackets with the outer tag name between double-quotes.
Put all the variables on the right side and rest everything on the left side. If there are no variables, the order will not be crucial. Yoda conditions for =, <,>,<=, >= are all difficult to read and so they are avoided.
Your Valuable Contributions!
Every WordPress developer is unique for its code. This uniqueness should be accessible to every other coder in order to have inputs of its own creativity.
A successful WordPress CMS Development company needs plenty of WordPress developers to extract each piece of information and build a powerful WordPress website. If you wish to create, we definitely want you!
WordPress is open-source. You can contribute to it freely and immediately.
You can make WordPress at make.wordpress.org all free and be a contributor at WordPress official.
There are many wordcamps organized around the world, where the contributor gets an open platform to share their views.
The prettiest WordPress code Award is offered to the best codes and you can definitely be the one.
Code is not a program, it’s poetry. Try your hand and be a WordPress Coder.
How WPWeb Contributed?
We are the leading WordPress Development Company. While WordPress offers the most flexible way to build a website, we follow the maximum coding standards.
Our WordPress developers have varied sets of unique codes. This has helped many beginning developers to improve or design their codes. If you wish to create, We are with you! For any guidance from our expert, contact us.
Felt informative? You can read some of our other blogs on Cost to develop a WordPress Plugin too.